Publication Ethics Statement

For Editors

Editors should accept or evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without bias towards race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors, and try the best to ensure the quality of articles published on this journal. Editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, and the publisher. Editors would take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers involving academic misconduct. They would not encourage such academic misconduct, or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place. The editorial office would take appropriate action if there were any allegation of research misconduct. Publishers and editors should always be ready to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.


For Reviewers

Reviewers shall treat all manuscripts with the most professional attitude to make the review process transparent, confidential and fair. Comments and decision should be made upon the article, instead of upon authors, without bias towards race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. Once the reviewers find that there are mistakes, plagiarism, suspected forgery of data and other problems in the article, they are obliged to report it to the editorial office. Reviewers shall not use unpublished papers or materials in their research. If the reviewers have competition, collaboration or other relations with the author, company or institution related to the article, they should report the conflict of interest and avoid reviewing the article.


For Authors


The manuscript should be original, and has not been published previously. All articles must normally be empirical or theoretical contributions not previously published; all other scholars’ words or remarks and their origins must be indicated if quoted. Do not submit material that is currently being considered by another journal. The journal uses the repetition detection system developed by Turnitin to test all manuscripts. If multiple submission or plagiarism is found, the editorial office will reject any submission from the author within 2 years.



The funding sources of research presented for the scientific article or for the preparation of the scientific article should be disclosed.


Conflicts of Interest

All authors must disclose all potential conflicts of interest, i.e., when the financing/ personal status/ affiliation of the authors (or the authors' organization/ employer) may affect the authors' decision, work or manuscript. When a product is involved, the author should also disclose whether there is a conflict of interest against competitive products. Authors may refer to ICMJE’s guidelines on conflict-of-interest, which can be found in “Download” section of this website. Authors are required to disclose the information under a subheading of Conflict of Interests at the end of the article. The author should state “there is no conflict of interest” even if there isn’t any conflict.



Those who are named as authors should directly contribute to the research work, writing the manuscript or has an important guiding role.  Other contributors of the paper may be listed in acknowledgement. “Gift author” is strictly prohibited.  For a collective piece of work, authors are required to specify their contribution under a subheading of Authors Contribution at the end of the article. Authors may refer to “Authors Contribution Form”, which can be found in “Download” section of this website, for guidelines on writing authors contribution. 

Authors are expected to carefully consider the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of submission. Only in exceptional circumstances will the editors consider (at their discretion) the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been submitted and the author must clearly flag any such request to editors. All authors must agree with any such addition, removal or rearrangement.



When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published academic work, the author is obliged to notify the journal editor or publisher in a timely manner and cooperate with the journal to retract or correct the paper.


Intellectual Property and Open Science

Sanderman Publishing House strives to respect the protection of intellectual property and requires editors, authors and reviewers to do so. Any potential infringement should be avoided. Third-party infringement to the intellectual property of the journal is prohibited. On the premise of intellectual property protection, the journal encourages the practice of open science. Authors are encouraged to publish or share their research data whenever appropriate. The data for sharing may include original data, observation records, experimental results, etc. The journal also encourages the sharing of software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials. Authors can upload the materials above to an accessible third-party repository and make a proper citation or add a link at the end of the article.

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